Lithium: Anti-Aging For The Brain?

Reading Dr. Jonathan Wrights information on lithium helping keep the brain healthy as we age, 10 to 20 milligrams (from lithium aspartate or lithium orotate) daily is what Wright recommends and takes himself. I started taking 15 mg in May, 2009. Michael Mooney  

The Misunderstood Mineral - An Anti-Aging Brain Secret
by Jonathan Wright, MD.

The biggest problem with lithium treatment is people's perception of it. Since its most well known use is for bi-polar disorder, lithium sometimes encounters the same stigma as mental illness itself.

I've been taking a lithium supplement every day for several years. When I tell people about it, they sometimes get funny looks on their faces and start eyeing the corners of the room for straight jackets. These reactions don't surprise me, since, as I said, lithium is usually associated with mental illness. But I've never suffered from a mental disorder (although certain mainstream medical doctors and possibly a federal agency or two might disagree). Treating manic-depressive (bi-polar) illness is lithium's most widely known use--but it isn't an anti-psychotic drug, as many people believe. In fact, lithium isn't a drug at all. It's actually a mineral-part of the same family of minerals that includes sodium and potassium.

You might remember reading several editions of Health e-Tips a few months ago that discussed various benefits of lithium. In addition to the benefits mentioned in the e-Tips, like controlling gout and relieving rashes caused by sebhorric dermatitis, lithium also has some great brain-boosting effects. In fact, I've reviewed both recent lithium research and the research spanning the past few decades, and I'm convinced that lithium is an anti-aging nutrient for human brains. And there are also some very strong reasons to believe that lithium therapy will slow the progression of serious degenerative mental problems, including Alzheimer's disease, senile dementia, and Parkinson's disease.

So there are obviously quite a few "pros" to using lithium, but you're probably wondering about the "cons." In the 1930s and '40s, lithium chloride was sold in stores as a salt substitute. But (as frequently happens) some people used way too much and suffered toxic overdoses, so it fell out of common use. Fortunately, lithium toxicity is entirely preventable, and it's also easily treatable if it ever does occur - but more about that later. Right now, let's get into some of the specifics on just how you (and your brain) can benefit from lithium.

Taking (grey) matters into your own hands
Hercule Poirot, Agatha Christie's famous fictional detective, had an amusing quirk in his incessant concern for his "little grey cells." I thought of Hercule several years ago when I saw the following headline in an issue of the Lancet: "Lithium-induced increase in human brain grey matter."

That may not sound like an earth-shattering piece of news, but it actually was quite a major discovery. To that point, medical experts believed that once our brains matured, it was all downhill from then on. Decades of autopsies, x-rays, and, more recently, brain scans have repeatedly shown that brains shrink measurably with aging. But according to their report in the Lancet, Wayne State University (Detroit) researchers found that lithium has the ability to both protect and renew brain cells [1]. Eight of 10 individuals who took lithium showed an average 3 percent increase in brain grey matter in just four weeks.

Lithium may help to generate entirely new cells too: Another group of researchers recently reported that lithium also enhances nerve cell DNA replication [2]. DNA replication is a first step in the formation of a new cell of any type.

The Wayne State study used high-dose lithium, but I'm certainly not using that amount myself, nor do I recommend it. Prescription quantities of lithium just aren't necessary for "everyday" brain cell protection and re-growth. Studies done years ago have shown that very low amounts of lithium can also measurably influence brain function for the better.

Protect yourself from brain damage you didn't even know you had.
Aside from boosting brain mass, recent research also shows that lithium can help protect your brain from the "beating" it gets in the course of everyday life. Your brain cells are constantly at risk of damage from exposure to toxins of all sorts-even ones produced by your own body. Toxic molecules are formed naturally during the course of normal brain metabolism [3-7]. Since these "normal" toxic molecules (sometimes called "excitotoxins") are produced every day of your life, eventually they start to wear down or erode away brain mass.

Another well-known cause of brain cell injury is overactivated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Lithium can inhibit this overactivity [8]. And lithium also increases production of a major brain protective protein called "bcl-2" in both human and animal brain cells [9].

So it appears that lithium can protect against normal brain erosion and shrinkage that would otherwise occur over the course of our lives. But lithium also protects the brain from other less "normal" problems too, like damage caused by prescription medications and strokes.

When a clot or other obstruction occurs in a blood vessel serving the brain, it causes a reduction of blood flow to that area. If it's bad enough, the lack of blood flow will cause a stroke and death of brain cells. (This type of stroke is known as an ischemic stroke.) Research in experimental animals with deliberately induced ischemic strokes has shown that lithium reduces the areas of cell death [10,11].

In one of these studies, researchers blocked a brain artery in rats. Some were pre-treated with lithium for 16 days, the rest weren't. The researchers reported that the lithium-treated rats experienced 56 percent less cell death and significantly fewer neurologic deficits than the control rats [12].

And sometimes medications designed to treat other problems end up having a negative impact on the brain. For example, anti-convulsant medications cause abnormal levels of brain cell death.

But lithium significantly protects against this type of cell death-so much so that this effect has been called "robust" (a term scientists use to mean "It really works!") [13].

In fact, based on its general neuroprotective effect, researchers have recently suggested that "the use of lithium as a neurotrophic/ neuroprotective agent should be considered in the long term treatment of mood disorders, irrespective of the 'primary' treatment modality being used for the condition" [14]. Translation: Lithium should be used along with any patent medicine being used for depression, anxiety, or any other "mood-altering" reason, since it will protect brain cells against their unwanted toxic effects. The researchers didn't say so, but I will: Any list of "mood altering substances" should include alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, "uppers," "downers," and - for those who do inhale - marijuana. Harmless as some of them might seem, these substances can cause brain damage with medium to long-term abuse.

Keeping your brain's lines of communication open and healthy

Scientists determine how healthy brain cells are by measuring levels of a molecule called N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA). A decrease in NAA is thought to reflect decreased nerve cell viability, decreased function, or even nerve cell loss [15]. In a study of 19 research volunteers given four weeks of lithium, 14 experienced a significant increase in NAA, one had no change, and four had a small decrease [16].

Now, what about the interaction between those new, protected, healthy brain cells?
Communication between brain cells and networks of brain cells is called "signaling." And lithium is actually necessary for at least two signal-carrying pathways [17]. Researchers have also reported that lithium may help to repair abnormally functioning signaling pathways in critical areas of the brain [18].

Lithium and Alzheimer's: New hope for a "hopeless" situation
As you know, there's no cure for Alzheimer's disease and there's very little available for patients (and families) that can offer even partial relief from the turmoil it causes. So when new treatments are developed or discovered, it's usually big news -a ray of hope for people stuck in a seemingly hopeless situation. One of these newly developed patent medications, called Memantine (tm), was recently approved in Europe. Even though it's not officially "approved" in this country (yet), thousands of people are already importing Memantine to the U.S. via various Internet sources.

But why go through all the trouble (not to mention risk) of getting and using this new patent formula? Apparently, it "works" by protecting brain cells against damage caused by a major excitotoxin, glutamate. But protecting against glutamate-induced nerve cell damage is also one of the well-known actions of lithium. So if it's true that this newly approved patent medication slows the progress of Alzheimer's disease in this way, then lithium should slow Alzheimer's disease progression, too. Of course, lithium treatment, which isn't patentable and doesn't have nearly the profit potential of patented Alzheimers medications, hasn't made any headlines. But that doesn't mean it isn't a promising option for patients struggling with Alzheimer's disease.

There are many other research findings that also strongly suggest that lithium will protect against potential Alzheimer's disease and slow the progression of existing cases. Researchers have reported that lithium inhibits beta-amyloid secretion, and also prevents damage caused by beta-amyloid protein once it's been formed [20-23]. Beta-amyloid peptide is a signature protein involved in Alzheimer's disease: the more beta-amyloid protein, the worse the Alzheimer's becomes.

Overactivation of a brain cell protein called tau protein also contributes to neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease, as does the formation of neurofibrillary tangles Lithium inhibits both of these nerve-cell damaging problems [24,25].

And you've likely read that individuals with Alzheimer's disease usually have excess aluminum accumulation in brain cells. While it's not yet known whether this excess aluminum is a cause, an effect, or just coincidental, most health-conscious individuals take precautions to avoid ingesting aluminum. Unfortunately, it's impossible to completely avoid all aluminum, since it's naturally present in nearly all foods. But lithium can help protect your brain against aluminum by helping to "chelate" it so that it can be more easily removed from the body [25].

Although Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia aren't technically the same, they do share many of the same degenerative features so there's every reason to expect that lithium will help prevent or slow the progression of senile dementia too.

A younger, healthier brain with just one small dose a day
As I mentioned earlier, some of these studies used rather high doses of lithium. And in some instances, as in the case of manic depression, doses as high as 90 to 180 milligrams of elemental lithium from 900 to 1800 milligrams of lithium carbo-nate are necessary. Quantities of lithium in that range must be monitored closely to guard against overdose and toxicity.

But you really don't need large amounts to improve your "every-day" brain function. Studies have repeatedly shown that substantially lower amounts of lithium can significantly improve brain function (as reflected in behavior).

The amounts of lithium I recommend for brain anti-aging range from 10 to 20 milligrams (from lithium aspartate or lithium orotate) daily. I've actually been recommending these amounts since the 1970s. At first I was exceptionally cautious and asked all of my patients taking lithium to have regular "lithium level" blood tests and thyroid function tests. After a year or so, I quit asking for the lithium level blood tests, since 100 percent of them came back very low. Another year after that, I stopped requesting routine thyroid function tests, too, only doing one when I was suspicious of a potential problem. In the 30 years since, I've rarely found one.

Protect your brain starting today--no prescription necessary
High-dose lithium is available only by prescription. But low-dose lithium (capsules or tablets containing 5 milligrams of lithium from lithium aspartate or lithium orotate) is available from a few natural food stores and compounding pharmacies, as well as from the Tahoma Clinic Dispensary.

If you're interested in keeping your brain as young as possible for as long as possible, you should definitely consider lithium therapy. Review this information with your physician...but make sure he is skilled and knowledgeable in nutritional and natural medicine!
Jonathan V. Wright, M.D. has degrees from both Harvard University (cum laude) and the University of Michigan. More than any other doctor, he practically invented the modern science of applied nutritional biochemistry and he has advanced nutritional medicine for nearly three decades. As of today, Dr. Wright has received over 35,000 patient visits at his now-famous Tahoma Clinic in Washington State. To learn more about Dr. Wright, and to sign up for his free Health e-Tips eLetter, please visit






LITHIUM - Alcoholism, Depression


"Lithium: The Present and the Future," Jefferson JW, J Clin Psychiatry, August 1990;51(suppl 8):4-8.


Lithium is the most widely used drug for bipolar disorder, both for acute mania and for maintenance therapy. About 60% to 70% of patients with resistant depression respond favorably. Lithium is effective in adolescents, adults and the elderly. A dose of 300 mg, t.i.d. or less, is utilized. There is a rapid onset between 24 and 48 hours in some patients, but it make take up to 3 weeks in others. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 104 alcoholic individuals followed for 12 months, results showed the highest abstinence rate was in compliant patients with therapeutic serum lithium levels. In another study of 457 alcoholic subjects divided into depressed and nondepressed categories, subjects were randomly assigned to receive either lithium or placebo in a double-blind fashion for 1 year. Results showed no differences between lithium treatment and placebo in depressed and nondepressed groups, with regard to the number of abstinent individuals. Lithium may work in some cases of alcoholism but not in others. The beneficial effect of lithium in obsessive compulsive disorder does not seem to be as beneficial as that in depression. Lithium has been found to inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus Types 1 and 2 and other DNA viruses. In a study of patients with genital herpes, topical lithium succinate ointment was shown to decrease viral shedding and accelerate the healing of lesions, compared with placebo. In a study of 10 men with HIV infection, lithium failed to have any antiviral activity or improve immune function and was associated with an increase in certain side effects, including rash, fatigue and tremor. This prompted 7 of the subjects to withdraw before completing the trial. Lithium can inhibit thyroid hormone release from the gland, inhibit hormone synthesis, inhibit the secretion or action of thyroid-stimulating hormone, and inhibit the peripheral degradation of thyroxine. Hypothyroidism occurs in approximately 5% of patients taking lithium. Lithium-induced thyroid dysfunction can be treated without discontinuing the drug by utilizing levothyroxine. Polyuria is common among higher maintenance levels of lithium. Results of several relatively long-term studies regarding the use of lithium and renal function deterioration have not shown that lithium causes progressive deterioration of kidney function. Lithium can interact with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, which can increase serum concentrations of lithium to toxic levels.




LITHIUM - Sodium Bicarbonate


"Dietary Interferences With Lithium Therapy," Castrogiovanni, P. and Pieraccini, F., European Psychiatry, 1996;11:53-54.


This is a case report of a 56-year-old female with a long history of bipolar disorder who was taking lithium carbonate at 300 mg 3 times a day and was suddenly observed to have a significant lower level of lithium, without a reduction in medication use. She was taking 10 grams of sodium bicarbonate added with malic and tartaric acids as an "effervescent and digestive dinner water". These alkalizing agents can decrease serum levels of lithium and should be accounted for.






"Folic Acid Enhances Lithium Prophylaxis." Coppen A, Chaudhry S, Swade C, J Affect Disord, 1986;10:9-13.


In 75 depressed patients who completed this study, subjects took either 200 mcg of folic acid or a matched placebo in conjunction with lithium therapy. It was found that the subjects with the highest plasma folate concentrations showed a significant reduction in their affective morbidity. Patients who had plasma folate levels increased to 13 ng/ml or above, had a 40% reduction in their affective morbidity. The authors suggest that 300-400 mcg/day of folic acid should be given in subjects on long-term lithium therapy.